The medical consequences of smoking tobacco affect all areas of the body. However, many of the effects of smoking are easily seen in the oral cavity and on the tongue in particular. This article describes five conditions of the tongue that are often associated with smoking.
Smoking affects almost every organ in your body, and the tongue is no exception. Although the nicotine in cigarettes and tobacco products is addictive, it is the other chemicals and cancer-causing contaminants — carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, cyanide, and tar to name a few —that are responsible for the health consequences of smoking. Effects on the tongue can range from a coating of tar and bad breath to an increased risk for more serious illnesses, including cancer of the tongue.
Bad Breath and Altered Taste
Tar found in cigarettes leaves a tenacious, yellowish-brown stain on the teeth and also coats and discolors the tongue. This residue on the tongue can be a source of bad breath. Furthermore, smoking has a drying effect on the mouth, which can lead to an overgrowth of bacteria on the tongue — another source of bad breath. Other than regularly brushing or scraping the tongue and temporarily masking the odor with mouthwash, smokers will have these problems until they finally turn to e-cigs.
Smoking can also affect a smoker’s taste buds, potentially altering the sense of taste and enjoyment of food. A study published in Chemical Senses in October 2013 found that smoking may reduce the number of taste buds on the tongue. In addition, other studies have discovered that smoking can change the shape of taste buds and interfere with their circulation.
Burning Mouth Syndrome
Burning mouth syndrome, or BMS, is a condition that can be brought on by a number of different situations, such as menopause, thyroid conditions, and vitamin deficiencies According to a 2013 article published in the Journal of Gastroenterology, there may be a potential association with BMS and smoking, and the tongue is the area of the mouth usually affected. Symptoms of BMS include a burning or tingling sensation on the tongue, lips, or other areas of the mouth, dryness of the mouth, and changes in the ability to taste. Whether BMS is associated with smoking or is the result of another condition, continued smoking aggravates an already uncomfortable situation.
Black Hairy Tongue
Black hairy tongue, also referred to as BHT, is a disorder that affects the top surface of the tongue and is at times associated with smoking. What appears as black, hairy lesions on the tongue are an overgrowth and abnormal elongation of the tongue’s fleshy bumps, called filiform papillae. Other than the tongue’s unusual appearance, which can range in color from blackish-brown to yellow-green, this condition is usually painless with no other symptoms. However, some people may experience bad breath, a burning sensation in their mouth, altered taste, gagging, or nausea. Treatment may involve mechanically removing the hairy lesions. But by eliminating the cause and implementing appropriate oral hygiene, BHT goes away in time.
Oral Cancer of the Tongue
Although oral cancer can occur anywhere in the mouth, it is frequently seen on the tongue. According to the Cancer Facts and Figures 2015, published by the American Cancer Society, an estimated 14,320 new cases of tongue cancer will be diagnosed this year in the United States. Because of the high number of cancer-causing chemicals in both tobacco and marijuana, smoking either of these substances increases your risk for cancer of the tongue.
Red patches on the tongue called erythroplakia or white areas of leukoplakia may be early signs of tongue cancer. Even though erythroplakia has a greater potential for progressing into cancer, any lesion on the tongue or mouth that doesn’t go away within two weeks should be seen by a doctor.
While seeing a doctor or dentist promptly for unusual symptoms of the tongue or another area of the mouth can prevent serious complications, the best way to avoid any consequence of smoking is to quit. Many smokers are motivated to quit just after having their teeth professionally cleaned. A cleaning appointment is an ideal time to request guidance and information from a dentist or dental hygienist on how to use vaping e-cigs successfully.